Część tekstu pochodzi z 8 modułu (Food intolerances and allergies) kursu e-learningowego "English for Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition".
Czarnym kolorem oznaczono: useful words and expresions, niebieskim kolorem oznaczono: useful words with prepositions, zielonym kolorem oznaczono: useful collocations.
Up to 20% of overall population change their diet because of abnormal reactions to different kinds of food hypersensitivities. The abnormal response to food can be toxic (when the food is contaminated by toxins) or non-toxic (lectins).
Non-toxic reactions can be either immune-dependent or independent. The immune responses associated with IgE antibody are food allergies (FA), which result in a wide range of histamine-dependent symptoms.
Histamine is a tissue hormone which induces capillary dilation, lowers blood pressure, and increases capillary permeability in the area of infection. Histamine causes hives, itching, edema, diarrhea, dyspepsia, harmless oral allergy syndrome, respiratory problems (sinusitis, rhinitis - hay fever, asthma, bronchitis) and even anaphylaxis.
Anaphylactic shock is the condition of too fast reaction to allergens (strong cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal manifestations) which potentially may cause death. It should be treated immediately by the intramuscular epinephrine (adrenaline) injection before arriving to the hospital.
Non-toxic responses - not connected with IgE response - are e.g. celiac disease, herpetiform dermatitis, gripe, atopic dermatitis (eczema).
Hypersensitivities connected with non-immunologic mechanisms - food intolerances - can be:
- enzymatic e.g., lactose intolerance
- pharmacologic e.g., pseudo-allergies - with symptoms similar to allergies, after consuming products high in histamine (aged cheese, cured meat, wine, yeast, anchovies, chocolate), (beans, soy), biogenic amines (cheese, dry sausages, wine, and fish) or salicylates (e.g., wine, ciders, sodas, dried fruit, jams, baked goods, canned vegetables).
The unknown non-toxic, non-immunologic food hypersensitivities can refer to e.g., food additives (sulfite).
Allergies become successively more common. The prevalence and course of allergic disorders are related to age. Allergies occur in 6-8 % of children, and 2-4 % of adults. Although children often outgrow allergies, in adults, unfortunately, the problem usually persists. The colloquial term “allergic march”, refers to the switch of allergy symptoms throughout lifetime - most often from predominance of atopic dermatitis in childhood - to predominant allergic rhinitis in adolescence and adulthood.
Allergens are the type of antigens - protein molecules capable of inducing immune responses. They may be found in many sources: plant-derived (e.g., pollen) or animal-derived (dust mite excretion, pet dander or mucus, insect venom) and in food proteins.
8 main allergens (the Big Eight) responsible for 90% of all food allergy cases in adults, are peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, fish, milk, eggs, soy, wheat and their derivatives.
Allergic patients may experience cross-reactions among diverse sources of allergens. The immune system sees and reacts to the allergens as if they were the same, because of the structural similarities among proteins of the products. The eliminations of the cross-reacting products are particularly important in the case of observed strong anaphylactic response to the allergen. Common cross-reactions are observed among the allergens of:
- different kinds of fish, shellfish and seafood
- tree nuts (walnut, hazelnut, brazil nut, pecan, pistachio, cashew) and peanuts (35% of risk)
- cow’s milk and all mammal’s milk (>90% prevalence with goat and sheep milk) and even beef meat (10%)
- hen’s egg and poultry meat
- peach and lemon
Some patients suffering from respiratory allergies also react when exposed to food allergens, experiencing symptoms of - tingling, itching and swelling of the mouth, tongue and throat - often described as the pollen-associated oral allergy syndrome. Common cross-reactions between pollen and food allergens are:
- birch pollen and raw apples, peaches, stone fruits, carrot, nuts
- ragweed and melons
- mugwort and celery.
Sometimes symptoms of food sensitivities are very similar, thus their recognition can be difficult.
Frequently mistaken food hypersensitivities are:
- Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity, Celiac Disease and Wheat Allergy,
- cow’s milk allergy and lactose intolerance.
|Food Hypersensitivity (FHS) - nadwrażliwość pokarmowa||prevalence - występowanie, rozpowszechnienie|
|contaminated - zanieczyszczony, zakażony||allergic march - marsz alergiczny|
lectins - lektyny
|plant-derived - pochodzenia roślinnego|
|food allergy - alergia pokarmowa||pollen - pyłek|
|histamine - histamina||dander - łupież zwierzęcy|
|capillary dilation - rozszerzenie naczyń krwionośnych||dust mite - roztocz|
|permeability - przepuszczalność||venom - jad|
|hives - pokrzywka, wysypka||cross-reaction - reakcja krzyżowa|
|itching - swędzenie||hazelnut - orzech laskowy|
|sinusitis - zapalenie zatok||brazil nut - orzech brazylijski|
|rhinitis - zapalenie śluzówki nosa||pecan - orzech pekan|
|bronchitis - zapalenie oskrzeli||pistachio - orzech pistacjowy|
|anaphylaxis - anafilaksja||cashew - nerkowiec|
|anaphylactic shock - szok anafilaktyczny||mammal - ssak|
|cutaneous - skórny||tingling - mrowienie|
|herpetiform dermatitis - choroba Duhringa||swelling - opuchlizna|
|gripe - kolka||oral allergy syndrome - zespół alergii jamy ustnej|
|atopic dermatitis - atopowe zapalenie skóry||stone fruit - owoc pestkowy|
|yeast - drożdże||ragweed - ambrozja|
|salicylates - salicylany||mugwort - bylica pospolita|
|sulfite - siarczyn||Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity - nieceliakalna nietolerancja glutenu|
|course - przebieg|