Część tekstu pochodzi z 7 modułu (Diet and longevity) kursu e-learningowego "English for Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition".
Czarnym kolorem oznaczono: useful words and expresions, niebieskim kolorem oznaczono: useful words with prepositions, zielonym kolorem oznaczono: useful collocations.
As one of the theories of ageing refers to the accumulating oxidative damage caused by the free radicals in DNA, proteins and mitochondria, many experiments try to evince that the proper concentration of antioxidants in plasma can prevent and slow down the ageing process by neutralizing the oxidative free radicals.
The oxidative or nitrosative stress (OS/NS) occurs mostly in body areas where the risk of oxidation or nitrosation is higher:
- the respiratory system (high oxygen exposition),
- brain (demonstrating bigger metabolic activity in lower concentrations of endogenous antioxidants),
- eyes (constantly exposed to the Ultra-Violet light),
- cardiovascular system (sensitive to the changing levels of oxygen and nitric oxide)
- reproductive system
The damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), may be controlled by the low molecular mass compounds and enzymes that eliminate the ROS and RNS. Their appropriate consumption is recommended to people at every age and as a support during certain conditions and dangerous behaviours such as smoking.
Majority of these protective agents (compounds and enzymes), which derive from food, are :
- vitamin A
- vitamin C
- tocopherols and tocotrienols
- fish oil with omega-3 fatty acids
- various thiols, e.g. glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine
- ubiquinol-10 (reduced form of coenzyme Q-10)
Vitamin A - carotenoids and retinol
Carotenoids are strong fat-soluble antioxidants, critical for functions which often decline with age - vision, bone structure, anti-inflammatory response and the condition of: skin, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. The best plant sources of this chromatic substance are deep orange, red, dark green vegetables and fruits. Animal sources containing vitamin A include beef liver (also rich in cholesterol, therefore they should be rarely consumed), fish, e.g. salmon and dairy products. Vitamin A intake should be increased for people abusing alcohol (but its supplementation and alcohol drinking should not be simultaneous). Although consuming foods containing carotene or vitamin A can lower the risk of certain kinds of cancer, the impact of beta-carotene supplementation does not show any correlation with the reduced danger of cancer, that’s why the elderly should focus on consuming natural sources of vitamin A. Moreover, in case of subjects smoking tobacco, its supplementation may have the adverse effect on the lung cancer risk.
Vitamin C- L-ascorbic acid
The vitamin present naturally in some fruits (berries- strawberries, blackcurrants; citrus fruit; vegetables- parsley, bell pepper).
As an antioxidant, it protects cell membranes and genetic material from the oxidative lesion. It is required for the collagen synthesis, which is the essential component of connective tissues: skin, cornea of eye, tendons, blood vessels, ligaments, cartilages, bones, intervertebral discs - which often lose their properties during ageing. Vitamin C plays an important role in wound healing.
Smokers need to consume more vitamin C per day than nonsmokers.
Fish-oil Omega 3 fatty acids
Some kinds of omega-3s, including EPA and DHA, can be found in fatty fish— i.e. trout, salmon, tuna, shellfish (e.g. crab, mussels, oysters). It is proved that the consumption of fish oil may decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes, and lowers the risk of age-related cognitive decline or even improve the brain work in older age.
Vitamin E - tocopherols and tocotrienols
These fat-soluble antioxidant compounds: Α-tocopherol (present in wheat germ oil, sunflower, and safflower oils) and γ-Tocopherol (occurring in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine, and dressings) possess powerful anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, cholesterol-lowering and anti-cancer qualities.
The adverse effect of eating food high in Vitamin E is not found, however high doses of Α-tocopherol supplement can cause hemorrhage and troubles with blood coagulation.
Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q-10)
A lipid-soluble endogenous substance resembling vitamin that extracts energy from food. It is claimed to be beneficial in preventing cancer, increasing longevity and revitalizing the immune system by reducing the oxidative stress. It also has neuroprotective properties - Q10 may be a useful treatment for neurodegenerative diseases.
Coenzyme Q-10 production decreases with ageing in humans. To increase its plasma concentration it is recommended to implement the oral supplementation and increase its intake from foods.
The heartiest sources of coenzyme Q-10 are fatty fish, beef and poultry, peanuts, pistachios.
|longevity - długowieczność||to lower - obniżyć|
|free radicals – wolne rodniki||beta-carotene - beta karoten|
|mitochondria - mitochondria||L-ascorbic acid – kwas askorbinowy|
|evince - przejawiać, świadczyć||parsley - pietruszka|
|oxidative stress - stres oksydacyjny||bell pepper - papryka|
|nitrosative stress - stres nitrozacyjny||lesion – lezja (obrażenie, uszkodzenie)|
|oxidation – oksydacja, utlenianie||cornea - rógówka|
|endogenous - endogenny||tendons - ścięgna|
|nitric oxide – tlenek azotu||ligaments - wiązadła|
|reproductive - rozrodczy||cartilages - chrząstki|
|oxygen species – formy tlenu||trout - pstrąg|
|reactive nitrogen species - reaktywne formy azotu||shellfish – skorupiaki|
|molecular - cząsteczkowy, molekularny||mussels - małże|
|derive from – pochodzić od||cognitive - kognitywny|
|tocopherols - tokoferole||safflower - krokosz barwierski|
|tocotrienols - tokotrienole||dressing – sos, dressing|
|polyphenols - polifenole||dose - dawka|
|thiols - tiole||hemorrhage - krwotok|
|glutathione - glutation||ubiquinone (coenzyme Q-10) - ubichinon|
|ubiquinol-10 - ubichinol||resembling - przypominać|
|carotenoids - karotenoidy||revitalizing - rewitalizować, ożywiać|
|retinol - retinol||neurodegenerative - neurodegeneracyjny|
|chromatic - chromatyczny, barwny||heartiest – najbardziej obfity, krzepki|
|abusing - nadużywać||poultry - drób|
|carotene - karoten|
Put the following words and expressions into the proper gaps to make understandable sentences. (Ćwiczenie wraz z odpowiedziami dostępne w załącznikach do pobania)
ripeness polyphenols extract oxidative stress prebiotics cartilage genitourinary cholesterol-lowering
- …………. is a condition associated with chronic degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
- Diets with high content of antioxidant ……….. are associated with low prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
- Laboratories ……….. antioxidants occurring naturally in plants to enable consuming the needed amount at once.
- One of the degenerative changes in older age is losing ……… in joints, especially in hip and knee.
- Fruits of the same variation at different ……… levels show uneven amount of antioxidants.
- A diet rich in ……….. - inulin, fructooligosaccharides - includes foods such as leeks, chicory, garlic, endive, jerusalem artichoke and legumes.
- One of the functional …………foods are margarines containing plant sterols or stanols
- There is a significant increase in hospital admissions due to ……….tract complications in patients supplementing zinc at high levels.